Thursday, October 31, 2019
HISTORY - choose 1 of the questions to answer - Essay Example The Northern states put an end to slavery by the 19th century (Peck 34). Both American and Britain banned slave trade in their countries. As a politician associated to the Republican Party, I strongly supported LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of eradicating both slavery, as well as the slave trade. By 1860, a majority of northerners became aggravated at the Souths firmness for slavery to be lawful in the Western territories. People in the West and North saw slavery as a unit that needed to be overpowered (Peck 36). The Republican Party argued that the only way slave trade could be conquered was through abolishing it. The Democratic Party supported the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s use of black Republicanism. The pro-slavery group, created by the Democratic Party, portrayed that the slave trade was gaining power to the United States economy (Peck 36). The risk of slavery growing was a cause of the anti-slavery group in the North. The conspiracy was that the control of the government is exercised by a moderately small number of individuals. The Democratic Party had a common interest in embracing slavery and the slave trade in the South, but the Republican Party did not want to embrace these factors. The Slave Power was an upper crust that alleged slavery was not ethically wrong, but instead a right of the slaveholder. We, North politicians believed that there was a conspiracy amongst the Southern slaveholders to force slavery upon the country. They wanted to wipe out civil liberty, extend slave trade into the territories, perk up the slavery and control the laws of the Federal government. Different opinions from the Northerners, a majority Southerners, viewed slaves as assets of the slaveholder and considered slavery as a Constitutional and legal factor (Peck 38). The slave scheme did not hand out power equally for slaveholders often prohibited state legislatures, media, and education along with economic policies.
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Italian American Immigrant Essay Many Italians migrated to United States as early as 1848. They migrated in small numbers due to revolutionary movementÃ¢â¬â¢s failure that occurred in Italy. Most of the Italians migrated to America between 1880 and 1960s. These Italians came from Sicily and Southern Italy. They had very little knowledge in education and were poor. Majority of these immigrants were men. The poor economy that existed in Italy at that time contributed a great deal to the migration of Italians. Italians upon reaching America used to settle in specific places. One of the regions that were dominated by Italians was nick named Ã¢â¬ËLittle ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢. In Ã¢â¬ËLittle ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢ the Italians there had good relations and interactions with each other. They enjoyed cooking their favorite foods that were quite different from what American citizens cooked. ItalianÃ¢â¬â¢s food was richly spiced compared to that cooked by American Citizens. These included spiced sausages and Zeppole. Italian immigrants formed a common culture in Ã¢â¬ËLittle ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢. Italian immigrants normally had very little money and very minimal sophistication. Most of the Italian neighborhoods were dominated by slums. The sanitation in the neighborhood was quite poor and un-admirable. Many of them suffered from many ailments due to the poor sanitation and overcrowding. During World War I it was difficult for Italians to migrate to United States. These Italian immigrants faced much discrimination based on their religion. Many of them were lynched. Five point three million Italians had moved to United States by the year 1978. Some of the Italian immigrants never intended to stay there for a long time. They just wanted to make money and then go back to their mother nation. Research however shows that only one Italian among four would manage to return to the home country. Many of the public schools in United States gave Italian immigrants children a new language to speak. The children found that the patriotic symbols differed from those in their home country. Some of them were even given new names that were Anglicized. This created a very big gap in the culture of Italian children compared to the culture embraced by their parents. With time many labor unions incorporated the Italian immigrants. This gave Italian immigrants a chance to get experience and therefore advanced their carriers. With time Italian Ã¢â¬âAmerican immigrants started owning businesses. Some of them even became managers in industries and Companies in United States. Some of them like Enrico Caruso became artists. Culture A close looks at Italian Ã¢â¬âAmerican Immigrants shows that they still hold onto their culture. This is clearly seen in the food that they eat. They still cook Italian food. Their food is very rich in spices compared to the food that is cooked in United States of America. This includes their Italian drinks which are still preferred by many Italian-American Immigrants. They still hold onto Italian art that is quite beautiful. Italian Ã¢â¬âAmerican immigrants still hold their feasts that are really rich in their culture. Unlike Americans they are quite committed to their members of the extended families. They include cousins, uncles, grandparents and parents in laws etc. In these extended relations they include business relations which bond them together. In fact they marry their close relatives like first cousins. They are very committed to their families. During 1940s Italian Ã¢â¬âAmerican immigrants had very big impacts to music industry in United States. This was also witnessed in the year 1970. They also had big influence to movies that were featured in United States. This was mostly common in movies that were culture based. It was quite evident because Italian words were incorporated in communication of the characters. However many of the characters were not always in a position to speak the language very fluently. This language has also been incorporated by television presenters in America. One thing that really amazes about Italian immigrantÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is their feasts. They were often carried out in Ã¢â¬ËLittle ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢. These feasts include Our Lady of Mount Carmel Ã¢â¬ËGiglioÃ¢â¬â¢ which is commonly celebrated in Williamsburg New York. This feast has been celebrated for more than one hundred and twenty five years in New Jersey. It is normally celebrated annually. There is also the San Gennaro feast that is usually held in New York. Another feast is known as St JosephÃ¢â¬â¢s feast. These Italian feasts are very funny. They have displays on devotion that is done to patron saints and to God. The feasts are quite Italian based since they show their life approach. In the feasts communal meals are taken. They also include religious services. Others also incorporate games known as games of chance. These feasts give people the opportunity to show off their skills and prowess in various sectors like dancing. There are different statutes that are used in these feasts. Different kinds of jewels are normally shown off in these feasts. In fact in communities where they are practiced, they are taken very seriously. These feasts or celebrations take quite a long period of time like several days. The church community is the one that is responsible for the preparation of these feasts. These preparations take several months for all plans to be in order. Research shows that approximately three hundred Italian feasts are celebrated in United States. Millions of Americans from diverse backgrounds normally attend these feasts. In fact many of them concur that they enjoy Italian food. Religion Research shows that many Italian immigrants were Christians of catholic denomination when they were still in Italy. When these Italians migrated to United States, they even became more devout. This was quite evident even in their communication with friends, coworkers and employers. They introduced themselves as Catholics. This shows that they were very religious and a God fearing people. However there are also religious minorities that exist in Italy. They include Italian Jews, Greek Orthodox and also Greek Catholics. Even the celebrations that are carried out show their religion. An example is that which is celebrated on 19th March every year. This is called Saint JosephÃ¢â¬â¢s day which includes parades. There is also Columbus Day that is also enjoyed by many Italian immigrants staying in United States. There is St. Januaris that is celebrated on 19th September. Many immigrants from Sicily celebrate Santa Rosalia on 4th of September every year. Saint RoccoÃ¢â¬â¢s is celebrated by immigrants who originated from Italy in a place known as Potenza. Most of Italian immigrants do celebrate the famous Christmas season. The Feast of the seven fishes is also included in their celebrations. Research shows that some of the Irish and German Catholic leaders discriminated against some of the Italian American Catholics. This forced them to leave the Catholic Church and join Episcopal. Current research carried out in United States shows that there are Italian-American immigrants that are not Catholics. In fact many of them have joined the Episcopal Church. Most of the immigrants claim there are many similarities between the two churches. There are also a number of immigrants that changed from catholic to Baptist church. This was accelerated by influence of neighborhood who attended the Baptist church.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Non-pharmacological Nursing Interventions Literature Review 5 METHODOLOGY A literature review is defined as a critical analysis of a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles. In addition to that a literature review will be used for conducting the research. According to Fink (2010), literature review is an evaluative report that is a systematic, explicit and reproducible method for identifying, evaluating and synthesizing the existing body of completed and recorded work produced by researchers and scholars. In this literature review the main focus was to search the existing literature on non-pharmacological nursing interventions in order to be able to describe and analyze the similarities, differences, consistencies and inconsistencies and issues within the research topic. 5.1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria are characteristics that proposed subjects must possess in order to be integrated in the future study. On the other hand, Exclusion criteria are characteristics that help the researcher to eliminate subject from being integrated in the study. A clear comprehension of the inclusion and exclusion criteria ensures that the research yields accurate and genuine results (Fink 2010). The inclusion and exclusion criteria of this literature review are described below in table 1. TABLE 1. Inclusion and Exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria The research focused on the non-pharmacological nursing interventions of geriatric depression The articles which are not related to the research questions. Articles were limited from 2005 to present Articles were not related to the studies and carried out before 2005. The articles were in full text, abstract and within the keywords The articles without full text, abstract and within the keywords Languages used were English and Finnish. The articles which were not in English and Finnish. Evidence based research were used. Articles that were not related to nursing and were not scientific. 4.3 Data collection The research articles for the literature review were limited to a time frame between 2006-2015. The information was gathered using different computerized databases such as Ebrary, CINAHL, Ovid, SAGE Premier and Science Direct, to find scientific journals. Moreover web based publications such as WHO, kaypahoito and Terveyden ja Hyvinvoinnin Laitos were also used. In addition to that numerous articles were gathered from well known scientific journals such as Journal of Advanced Nursing and Journal of Nursing Education. Keywords used in the search were focused on the research topic, they included Geriatric Depression, non-pharmacological interventions and Signs of geriatric depression. The key words and the time frame were combined in order to constrict the range of articles; the materials obtained for this study were in both English and Finnish. 4.4 Data analysis The collected data will be analyzed through content analysis of the collected articles, journals and electronic web pages. All the collected data related to the topic will be divided into different groups to make analysis easy. 5 ETHICS AND RELIABILITY High ethics will be maintained throughout the research process. I will also consider a good scientific conduct to ensure that the research is ethically acceptable. The authors in the references will be respected and thus referred accurately. The research project is about finding out the effectiveness of non- pharmacological treatment methods when dealing with geriatric depression. I plan to follow the set thesis guidelines of Centria University of Applied Sciences while carrying out my research. Reliability will be ensured by only referring to recent research materials available concerning geriatric depression. The articles and other materials will be obtained from reliable electronic sources and the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s library databases to ensure that valid results are obtained that can be used in the future. 6 FINDINGS 6.1 Non-pharmacological nursing interventions Physical Exercise In a study by Park, Han and Kang (2014), it was found that regular exercise for older adults suffering from depression increased their social contact and improved their self efficacy. Physical activities also had inverse relationship with depression among the elderly. This meant that older adults engaging in physical exercises were found to have improved mental and physical health. (Lee, Brar, rush and Jolley 2014.)Regular physical exercises reduced depressive symptoms and anxiety associated with aging and other predisposing factors such as chronic ailments. In additional to that, older adults involved in physical activities ended up having some positive thoughts and opinions on their own aging process. (Park et al 2014.) As a result of physical exercise physical exhaustion was also highly reduced as a result of improved cardiovascular activity, immune system and the endocrine system. These also translated to reduction of depressive symptoms and an improvement in psychological well being. (Tsang, Fung, Chan, Lee, and Chan, 2006). In another study by Stanton and Reaburn (2014), it was confirmed that aerobic and non aerobic exercises including outdoor walking and stationary cycles demonstrated a reduction in depressive symptoms among the elderly. Exercises were conducted three times a week for a total duration of twelve weeks. (Stanton et al 2014.) Furthermore, regular physical activities among the elderly were found to improve their quality of sleep. Poor sleep quality and related sleep disturbances were attributed to in active lifestyles and repetitive daily routines, which further lead to cases of depression, anxiety, agitation, fatigue and daytime drowsiness. In a related article by Cheng, Huan, Li and Chang (2014), found that elderly people who engaged in physical activities such as the senior elastic band exercise reported improved sleep quality and significant decrease in depressive symptoms. In additional to that, Chen et al (2013) developed the wheelchair-bound senior elastic band (WSEB) exercise program, which granted the depressed older adults bound on wheel chairs an opportunity to exercise too. (Chen et al 2013.) Cognitive Exercise According to a study by Khatri, Blumenthal, Babyak and Krishman (2001), it was determined that physical exercise impacts positive effects on the cognitive functioning among elderly people suffering from depression. The study was carried out on two different groups of randomized participants: medication group and the aerobic exercise group. All the groups underwent the tests for duration of four months. In the medication group they received antidepressants while the exercise group underwent aerobic training. In addition to depression cognitive functions were also assessed, for example memory, executive functioning, concentration and psychomotor speed. Assessment tools used in the study included Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). It was established that participants in the exercise group exhibited greater improvements in both memory and executive functioning than those in the medication group. Furthermore, the exercise group also showed better improvements in the Wechsler Memory Scale visual reproduction delayed recall scores. However there were no significant differences in the verbal memory and concentration. (Khatri et al 2001.) Vasques, Moraes, Silveira, Deslandes and Laks (2011), found that despite physical exercise having significant effects on depression it also exhibited positive effect on the brain function. During their study neuropsychological tests were performed in the forms of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Digit Span Test (DST)and the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCW) to assess the cognitive functions of their elderly participants suffering from major depressive disorder. After the participants walking on the treadmill for half an hour cognitive tests were performed before, during, after and 10-15 minutes after the training session. Similar cognitive tests were also performed on the control group but without exercise. There were no significant differences for both the control and the exercise group on the Digit Span Test. However in the Stroop Color-Word Test, the exercise group had improvements in their results when compared to the control group. The improvements were a clear indication that physical exercise had a positive effect on the cognitive functions of the depressed participants. (Vasques et al 2011.) According to Nicholas et al (2006), nurses used Problem solving therapy to help patients with depression to improve their cognitive functioning. Individuals were assigned certain tasks to handle in the form of games which varied from cheap to hard. This helped the individuals to think in a structured way which in turn improved their cognitive functioning. In additional to that it helped relieve depressive symptoms. (Nicholas et al 2006; Haggerty 2006.) Family Therapy In another study by Tanner, Martinez and Harris (2014), to examine the functional and social determinants of depression on community dwelling older adults it was concluded that support from family showed an improvement in general functions and a decrease in loneliness. In additional to that, family support satisfaction scale (FSSS) was used on the older adults to assess satisfaction with support received. The instrument consisted of 13 questions constructed to investigate the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction with the family support they received from family members. The participants were expected to respond with either agreement or disagreement. It was found that those participants who had higher support scores had decreased levels of depression. Loneliness was also identified as one of the main causes of depression in addition to other predisposing factors. Older adults who were satisfied with the family support they received confirmed that it helped them cope with depression as well as chronic illnesses. (Tanner et al 2014). Nurses were found to play a crucial role in helping elderly people dealing with depression developed as a result of social isolation or bereavement. It was discovered that leaving these psychosocial factors not dealt with it made it difficult to make a lasting or complete recovery. (Hughes 2005). Nurses were found to play an important role in guiding, supporting and encouraging elderly people dealing with depression to keep contact with their family members. (Parello 2012.) According to a study by Merema (2014), it was found that older adults with good social network between them and their family members had higher levels of self esteem and self worth. In additional to that they were less likely to attempt suicide when compared to their counterparts with little or no social network at all. Music therapy According to a research carried out by Chan, Mok and Tse (2009), to determine the effects of music on depression levels in elderly people. The study was conducted on 47 elderly people (23 using music and 24 controls), majority of who were 75 and above. It was pointed out that music exerts psycho-physiological responses through influence on the limbic system. The limbic system is involved in our feelings of pleasure and emotions such as fear, anger as well as motivations. Therefore the limbic system is mostly affected by music rhythm as well as pitch and is also responsible for processing the music stimuli. It was found that music expends its effects through entertaining the body rhythms. In this context entertainment can be described as a tendency by two bodies locking together and vibrating in harmony. When an elderly person is going through a depressive phase they tend to experience mixed feelings of discomfort or agitation which in turn disrupts their body rhythms. The Body rhythm s is disrupted through change in breath, blood flow and heartbeat which further lead to changes in blood pressure levels and oxygen saturation. (Chan et al 2009). The music interventions used included four different types of music which included western classical, western jazz, Chinese classical and Asian classical. Each type of music was played for a duration of 30-min once per week for a duration of four weeks. The participants listened to the music without any interaction with the therapist. At the end of the study the depression levels of the experimental group had significantly decreased from form mild depression to normal levels. On the contrary there was no change in the depression levels for the control group within the four weeks. (Chan et al 2009). Furthermore, the physiological measures monitored including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate of the elderly in the experimental group had reduced significantly in comparison to those of the control group. The findings demonstrated the benefits music has on older people suffering from geriatric depression. Music had a soothing physiological and Psychological effect on the elderly suffering from geriatric depression. This also support that music has the capability of to resonate with the listeners feelings. (Chan et al 2009). It was discovered that giving participants an opportunity to choose their music led to effective treatment. Chang, Wong and Thayala (2011), suggested that when the participants chose their own music it facilitated the entertainment process because the listener was in tune with their music of choice. The effects of music listening did not occur after one or a few sessions. In contrary to that, significant decrease in depression levels were reached after the participants had music listening sessions for a few weeks. In additional to that it was found that different kinds of music had similar effects on depressive symptoms among the elderly depending on the listenerÃ¢â¬â¢s preference of music. (Chang et al. 2011). Music therapy was found to reduce irritability, agitation, and problem behaviors in people with geriatric depression. In additional to that it was also found that music therapy improves the sleep quality of people dealing with geriatric depression. (Rice et al 2010). Social activities While going through recent randomized trials it was found that social activities were effective interventions which improved depression outcomes among the elderly. (Merema 2014.) Social activities were provided in form of recreational group events such as day meetings, group outings and visits from family. These social activities generated social interaction and support among the elderly. (Hsu and Wright 2014). In additional to that it was found that through social activities the elderly were able to establish enduring relationships which in turn provided an effective method of reducing or limiting the severity of depression. It was also established that social activities improved the sleep quality and the cognitive functions of the elderly people. Social activities had a direct effect on the levels of loneliness faced by elderly people with depression. Furthermore it was discovered that depressed old adults felt much better when they were around other people. (Merema 2014.) Engagement in social activities was found to reduce cases of social isolation thus limiting worsening in the severity of depression. (Hsu et al 2014.) In a study by Hsu et al (2014), it was indicated that meaningful and enjoyable social activities lead to a decrease in depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly living with depression. Social activities that were interesting to the elderly dealing with depression showed a decrease in depressive symptoms. It was found that a large number participated in social activities in the institution due to the positive emotions they experienced or out of personal interest. (Merema 2014.) The reduction in depressive symptoms was as a result of the psychosocial mechanism which includes a positive feedback where there is an improved mood due to pleasant events. Surprisingly it was found that institutionalized depressed elders participated more in social group activities. The institutional environment offered them an opportunity to participate in activities that led to more positive mental attitude and a decrease in depressive symptoms. (Hsu et al 2014.)
Friday, October 25, 2019
Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I Trade Unionism In the second half of the nineteenth century trade unionism became much more recognized by governments. The government recognized that it is the right of workers to organize. This fundamental common law principle became a freedom of contract or the concept that people should be free to make bargains with each other and that the law should enforce such contracts if necessary. This became legalized in the year 1871 and by the year 1875 picketing also became legal. By the year 1884 these unions became legalized by FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Third Republic and also in Germany in 1890. These unions became corporations able to own property and to sue and be sued. This enabled these unions to protect their funds from defaulting officials. By mid way through the century the main focus of these unions was to organize skilled workers and to improve the working conditions and the wages for the workers. However, by the end of the century unions began to focus more on work for unskilled workers. This b ecame the first time that there were more unskilled workers than skilled workers in the workplace. In the decade before World War I most of the workers were still not unionized. Democracy and Political Parties The late nineteenth century was a great time of improvement for democratic electoral systems. The British passed their second voting reform act in 1867 and then passed a third in 1884. Also in 1871 Bismarck gave universal male suffrage for the German Empire. This had an effect on many other countries as well. Switzerland followed this and adopted universal male suffrage in 1879, Spain did in 1890, Belgium in 1893, Netherlands in 1896, Norway in 1898, and finally Italy i... ... Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American RelationsÃ¢â¬ LaborÃ¢â¬â¢s Great War http://sunsite.unc.edu uncpress/books/ fall97/mccartin.html This article was not that useful to me because most of it dealt with America - Norris,Nicole Ã¢â¬Å"Boldy going where no British Society has gone beforeÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ The Fabian Society 1996 http://www.hput.edu/Academics/English/fabian.htm This article was very useful to me. It gave me a lot of information on Fabianism. - Partington, Geoffrey Ã¢â¬Å"Trade Unionism and the New Protection http://www.exhibit.com.au/~~nicholls/nicholls/nichvol16/vol16/vol166tr.htm This article gave me a lot of useful information on trade unionism - Ã¢â¬Å"Bolshevism vs. ReformismÃ¢â¬ Historical Perspective http://www.plp.org/pl-_magazine/pyatnits.html This article helped me better understand Bolshevism
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Reduce the traffic The metrobus system, which IETT has effectuated in order to reduce the traffic density at the main arteries of traffic in Istanbul and to provide quick and comfortable transportation, primarily started to serve at Topkapi-Avcilar route. * To encourage more use of public transport The metrobus system, which reduced the Access time of Topkapi-Avcilar to 22 minutes, itÃ was 67 minutes previously, will be extended to Beylikduzu at the European side of Istanbul and to Kozyatagi the Anatolian side of Istanbul.One bus can carryÃ 600. 000/day. The number of people thatÃ typically travel in a car Ã¢â¬âÃ making bus travel greener and reducing congestion on our roads. MetrobusÃ improves reliability and more people will be encouraged to leave the car at home and use the bus more often. The metrobus system, which displays further development potential than other express lines; whose investment and operation costs are absolutely lower than other railways; whose est ablishment is completed in a shorter time relatively, has primarily reduced the traveling period, providing time saving.Since the vehicles move on their specific road, the accident rate and risk reduces. High-tech devices within the system provide a safer and more comfortable travel. By means of its environment-friendly engines, the emission rates reduce drastically and the hybrid engine provides approximately 40% fuel savings Its drawing near alongside the stop facilitates the disabled travelers to get on the metrobus. Operational Capabilities * Intelligent Metrobus Signs provide; * Real time travel information at high-use bus stops Timetables, route maps and local area maps * Need minimum maintenance and have a long service life * No need excavation, easy fitting * Promoting more people to use public transit * Audiable signange fort he visually impaired * Save %75 energy more than traditional stops * Solar-powered system, friendly to environment * Can be used as a lighting and 220 Volt AC power supply in case of emergency or natural disaster * Can call emergency with the emergency/panic button Intelligent metrobus sign system should be designed to withstand malicious use (A push button also triggers an audible message of the same information to help passengers with a visual impairment) . User Classes * Public: people who are using metrobuses searching which line they will use, arrival time of the metrobus or looking at the city map. * Maintenance personnel: people who service, adjust, maintain and repair equipment STAGE 2: OPERATIONAL CONCEPT FORMULATION * Existing metrobus stopsÃ are beingÃ upgraded and some new metrobus stopsÃ built along for future metobus routes.This ensures that passengers have reduced waiting times and easierÃ access to buses. * LCD displays on metrobus stops show arrival, departure and estimated time of arrival calculation information based on the vehicle tracking data. This tracking information is provided using satellite sig nals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) . The data is transferred to the control centre by GPRS communication. * Positions of all metrobuses are tracked so that predictions of arrival times onÃ information displays at metrobus stops are continually updated. The metrobus stop acts as an active environmental sensing node, powering itself through sunlight and collecting real-time information about the surrounding environment STAGE 3: OPERATIONAL CONCEPT FORMULATION * Main task The system would provide real-time information on LCD display screens at these stops. The information indicate the fixed route of the metrobuses on graphic maps, the number of stops and the estimated time before arrival. * Human Task The user will be able to check his current location, closest metrobus stop's location and name and all metrobus lines and their routes.And there will be a panic buton to be used just in case of an emergency ( will be located to a certain level of height in order to be kept aw ay childrenÃ¢â¬â¢ reach). Different views of system * Physical view * The size of the Metrobus Stop is modular and adjustable depending on the number of people using the bus stop at the specific site. * Schedules and timetables for each route are visible on LCD screens and there will be 2 LCD screens located the midpoint of the distance between 3 doors. The navigation positioning device (GPS) retrieving current vehicle geographic longitude and latitude coordinates from the received satellite signal * The position data transfers to Metrobus Stop Control Center * Compute a distance from the current position to a next target position value and the current geographic longitude and latitude coordinates * Analyzes the current vehicle speed based on a basic vehicle speed, and sends the analyzed speed data and the computed distance data to ETA (estimated time of arrival) unit. Compute parameters for adjusting a remaining distance and the remaining distance based on the received data * And determine the remaining time to the next stop according to the remaining distance to the next target position value and vehicle speed. * The data is transferred to the Metrobus Stop by GPRS communication Using the Metrobus stop, public transit operators can provide passengers reliable estimated time of arrival predictions, achieving greater passenger satisfaction and significantly improving their public image.A Global Positioning System unit would be installed on every metrobus to send real time information to the metrobus stop display via satellite. STAGE 4:CONCEPT DEMONSTRATION AND VALIDATION * The concept of design which is chosen during concept exploration is now modeled, simulated and model tests are performed. * Making sure that the proposed design encourages more people to use public transport is the major phase of this stage. Questions should be answered are; * Does the desing concept meet requirements for operating, maintaining and supporting the system? * Does it meet saf ety and personal training requirements?Personnel Requirements The stuff who are responsible with servicing ans maintaining are required to have necessarry technical knowledge and go through training programmes that may be necessary to bring their skills up to required levels STAGE 5: FULL-SCALE ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT Products are not only tested by consumers, but also will be tested during the process of design and manufacture. Usabbility Testing and Reference of Testing Results * Intelligent metrobus stop provides timely passenger information based on fast and effective communications. In average, the connection is established in less than 0. seconds, instantly providing accurate information on metrobus status. * When the metrobus passes through a tunnel, the global positioning deviceÃ Ã is not able to transmit and receive signal to and from the satelliteÃ . and therefore, could not retrieve the current vehicle geographic longitude and latitude coordinates and the current ve hicle speed to result in incorrect announcement of arrival at a next stop by the metrobus stop announcing system * Pressure and strength test are applied on the intelligent metrobus stops. * The metrobus stop shelter material is made from 99. 9% uv protection policarbonate. serlite Polycarbonate Selter prevents the transmissionÃ of more than 99. 9% of harmful UV radiation, measured toÃ standard ISO 9050:2003. Its co-extruded UV barrier protects theÃ sheet from UV degradation and discolouration. It remains stableÃ under extreme climatic conditions (-20Ã ° to +120Ã °C). Shelters also stop the rain. * Laserlite PolycarbonateÃ Roofing is self extinguishing, stops the spread of flameÃ and also has excellent fire resistant properties. Therefore, thisÃ product complies with many fire related tests, including Heat and Ã Smoke Release Ã Rates Ã (AS/NZS Ã 3837:1998) STAGE 6: PRODUCTION AND DEPLOYMENTUsers donÃ¢â¬â¢t need any training period. Training is only for technical service and operator workers. A timetable is available for convenience, and there is a slot for advertisement in order to create a surplus in cash flow, allowing more metrobus stops to be built. The technology would enable people to leave their cars and encourage more people to use public transport. Changes that should be made for later versions will allowed you to check your e-mail, share community information on a digital message board or monitor the local air quality. STAGE 7 : OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE The system require minimum maintenence and have a long service life.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Drinks2U Assignment 3 Essay Drinks2U Assignment 3 Essay Part C: YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Marketing Plan Kenneth Agbatutu Dr. William Creamer Marketing Management (MKT 500) Monday August 25, 2014 Executive Summary Have you ever wished that you could have alcoholic drinks delivered to you instead of going out to go buy it? If you have, then Drinks2U provides the convenience of receiving your alcoholic beverages by simply making a phone call. We will deliver to your address and enable you to drink comfortably from the safety of your home. Drinks2U was created to make delivering alcohol to your front door as simple as ordering a pizza. The alcoholic beverages would be at state minimum prices and there would be a flat rate delivery fee. Safety measures have been developed and age verification is one of the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focuses. The sales of Drinks2U are expected to increase rapidly from advertising and word of mouth on social media. Creating a brand is creating the culture of the product. In order, to become a successful business it is important that the company build valued relationships with its customers. Drinks2U helps customers not waste their time by go ing out to get drinks when they can just call to have them delivered. Time is valuable and when you have delivery services for so many others things such as food and clothes why not have it for your alcohol as well. Branding/Pricing/ Distribution Strategy Branding, pricing, and distribution are very important parts of a strategic marketing plan in developing you company. The purpose of marketing plan is to help a company make as much profit as they can each year. The marketing strategy can always change and will never stay the same. Drinks2U branding strategy will be to establish an identity that is easily relatable. The brand of Drink2U is young, hip and just the mention of Drink2U evokes a certain connation. Creating a brand is important in creating the culture of the product. Branding will be done through cultural promotion. The slogan of Drinks2U would Ã¢â¬Å"Out of drinks and want to keep the party going, Call Drinks2U and will be there in no time with the alcohol showingÃ¢â¬ . The logo would consist of an employee on a bike with drinks in the cart. The distribution strategy would be for Drinks2U to be marketed in states where there are fewer restrictions on the sales of alcohol p rimarily in California. Holidays and special events tend to dictate the sales of alcohol. Over the next five years, Drinks2U seeks to expand distribution throughout the United States and also partner with ABC stores. In partnering with ABC stores, Drinks2U would provide the delivery service to their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ thus increasing revenue. . In developing a market strategy a specific demographic will need to be targeted. Drinks2U target audience will be 21 and up. The marketing strategy will focus on young men. Research shows that men age 18 to 49 drink the most and a survey reports that 55 percent of men prefer beer, 21 percent favor liquor and 20 percent favor wine (Berman, 2013). According to the Beer Institute, the trade organization for the U.S. malt beverage industry, New Hampshire leads the country in beer consumption per capita, followed by North Dakota, Montana, South Dakota and Wisconsin (Berman, 2013). Customers of Drinks2U will more than likely submit orders i n the late afternoon, evening, and late night. Drink2U will be marketed by utilizing ads, commercials and other social avenues. Marketing Strategy 1. Research Industry a. Determine what products we will market b. Determine who I will market too c. Determine Income Objectives 2. Build Awareness a. How will I market Product Drinks2U prices their products with the client in mind. Drinks2U wants to provide a reasonable price to the customer while still making a profit. Value pricing is practiced so that customers are retained. The changing cost in alcohol will determine the delivery fee for the product. Drinks2U recognizes the fact that customers are